Target UPSC 2023: Daily MCQs 5 August (Ancient History)

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Target UPSC 2023: Daily MCQs

1. Match List-I and List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
List-I                              List-II
(Mahajanpada)                (Capital)
A. Matsya                         1. Potana
B. Asmaka                        2. Virat
C. Anga                            3. Champa
D. Chedi                           4. Shuktimati
Codes:
     A     B     C      D
(a) 1     2     3      4
(b) 2     1     3      4
(c) 4      3     2      1
(d) 3      4     2      1
Ans. (b) Correctly matched pairs are:
Matsya — Virat
Asmaka — Potana
Anga — Champa
Chedi — Suktimati
The main Matsyas under Virata had its capital named Viratanagari which is now known as Bairat in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. Upaplavya was another famous city in this kingdom. Asmaka was a kingdom among the 16 Mahajanapadas mentioned in the Buddhist texts. All other kingdoms were in the north, from Vanga to Gandhara. Some believes that Asmaka was a colony of the Kambojas, and its earlier name was Aswaka. It is believed that there were many Anga kings who ruled different parts of Anga kingdom, contemporary to Karna. Champapuri was the capital of Anga ruled by Karna. Magadha (south-west Bihar) king Jarasandha gifted another city called Malinipuri, to the Anga king Karna. The city called Suktimati is mentioned as the capital of Chedi. Prominent Chedis during Kurukshetra War included Damaghosha, Shishupala, Dhrishtaketu, etc.

2. Arrange the following Mahajanpadas moving from west to east in the correct order:
1. Avanti
2. Magadha
3. Matsya
4. Kosala
Codes:
(a) 1 2 3 4
(b) 1 3 4 2
(c) 1 3 2 4
(d) 1 4 3 2
Ans. (b) Mahajanapadas west to east are Avanti, Matsya, Kosala and Magadha. There were many states of the Aryans in North India, around the 6th century BC. These states were called the ‘Mahajanapadas’. There were sixteen of such Mahajanapadas: Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Machcha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja.Literally Mahajanapadas means ‘Great Kingdoms’. Before ‘Budhism’ rose in the country, these flourished in the north western parts of India. Aryans were seen migrating to the country. As per the Vedic texts, these Aryan tribes were known as the Janas. Later these Vedic Janas merged with Janapadas.Many of these became big political bodies. In the Budhist traditions, these kingdoms came to be known as ‘Mahajanapadas’.

3. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
List-I                            List-II
(King)                          (Kingdom)
A. Pradyota                1. Magadha
B. Udayana                2. Vatsa
C. Prasenjit                3. Avanti
D. Ajatshatru             4. Kosala
Codes:
      A      B      C       D
(a) 2       3      1       4
(b) 3       2      4       1
(c) 4        1      3      2
(d) 1       4       2      3
Ans. (c) Correctly matched pairs are:
Pradyot — Avanti
Udayana — Vatsa
Prasenjit — Kosala
Ajatshatru — Magadha
5 Pradyot kings ruled for 138 years. Pradyotas ruled from Avanti. Their kingdom covered central and western India. It was prosperous due to the trade with Mesopotamia. Their main sea port was Bharoch (Gujarat). 22 Magadha kings ruled for 1000 years. Bimbisara was the most remarkable king of this dynasty. He extended the boundaries of the Magadha kingdom up to Nepal. He built the city of Rajgriha (Rajgir in Bihar). Gautam Buddha and Mahavir Jain, preached their teachings during his time. His son Ajatshatru conquored Kosal by defeating Prasenajit. (Prasenajit was a decendant of Rama. He ruled over Kosal from Shravasti.) Ajatshatru founded the city of Pataliputra (Patna). Udayana also known as Udayanacarya (Udyanacharya, or “Master Udayana) lived in the 10th century, in Kariyan village in Mithila, near present day Darbhanga, Bihar state, India.

4. Arrange the following Magadha dynasties in the chronological order:
1. Nandas
2. Sungas
3. Mauryas
4. Haryanks
Codes:
(a) 2, 1, 4, 3
(b) 3, 2, 1, 4
(c) 1, 3, 4, 2
(d) 4, 1, 3, 2
Ans. (d) In chronological order, Magadha dynasties are Haryanks, Nandas, Mauryas and Sungas. Haryanka dynasty founded the Magadha empire in 600 BC, whose capital was Rajagriha, later Pataliputra, near the present day Patna. This dynasty lasted until 424 BC, when it was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. The Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88, ruling the bulk of this 100- year dynasty. Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya dynasty after overthrowing the reigning Nanda king Dhanananda to establish the Maurya empire. During this time, most of the subcontinent was united under a single government for the first time.The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BC, about fifty years after Ashoka’s death, when the king Brihadratha, the last of the Mauryan rulers.

5. Consider the following statements:
1. Bimbisara had founded Pataliputra
2. Vajji was the ancient name of the north Bihar. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (b) Pataliputra was founded by Udayin while Rajgriha was founded by Bimbisara. Vajji was the ancient name of north Bihar. The territory of the Vajji Mahajanapada was located on the north of the Ganges river and extended up to the Terai region of Nepal. On the west, the Gandak river was probably the boundary between it and the Malla Mahajanapada and possibly also separated it with the Kosala Mahajanapada. On the east, its territory was probably extended up to the forests along the banks of the rivers, Koshi and Mahananda. The capital of this Mahajanapada was Vaishali. Other important towns and villages were Kundapura or Kundagrama (a suburb of Vaishali), Bhoganagara and Hatthigama.Vajji Sangha (Vajji confederation), which consisted of several janapadas, gramas (villages), gosthas (groups).

6. Consider the following statements:
1. The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available in Anguttara Nikaya.
2. Asmaka Mahajanpada was situated on the bank of Godawari.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available in Anguttara Nikaya. Asmaka Mahajanapada was situated on the bank of river Godavari.The Anguttara Nikaya, the fourth division of the Sutta Pitaka, consists of several thousand suttas arranged in eleven books (nipatas) according to numerical content.An excellent modern print translation of the complete Anguttara Nikaya is Bhikkhu Bodhi’s The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Anguttara Nikaya. Some believes that Asmaka was a colony of the Kambojas, and its earlier name was Aswaka. The epic Mahabharata mentions that the king of the name Asmaka was the adopted son of Saudasa Alias Kalmashapada a king of Kosala and an Ikshwaku ruler. Asmaka Sumantu was a sage among the sages who assembled in Kurukshetra, during the last days of Kuru hero Bhishma.

7. Consider the following statements:
1. Mahapadmananda was the founder of Nanda dynasty.
2. Dhanananda was the contemporary of Alexander the great.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (b) Mahanandin was the founder of Nand dynasty. The Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88, ruling the bulk of this 100-year dynasty. The Nandas were followed by the Maurya dynasty. Dhanananda was the contemporary of Alexander the great. The army of emperor Dhanananda consisted of large number of cavalry, infantry, chariots and elephants. When Alexander the Great invaded India, the ruler of Magadha empire was Dhana-nanda. Alexander and his army heard the glory of the army of Nanda empire. The Macedonian army was so frightened that they refused to move ahead to face the huge army of Magadha empire.

8. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
List-I                                     List-II
A. Tirukkural                       1. Ilangoadigal
B. Shilpadikaram                2. Sattanar
C. Manimakhlai                   3. Tolkappiyar
D. Tolkappiyam                   4. Tiruvalluvar
Codes:
      A      B      C      D
(a) 4       1      2      3
(b) 1       4      3      2
(c) 4       1     3      2
(d) 1       4     2      3
Ans. (a) Correctly matched pairs are:
Tirukkural — Tiruvalluvar
Shilpadikaram — Ilangoadigal
Manimekhalai — Shitalai Sattanar
Tolkappiyam — Tolkappiyar
The Tirukkural is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is known: Tamil Marai (Tamil Vedas); Poyyamozhi (words that never fail); and Deiva nool (divine text). Silappatikaram has many references to historical events and personalities, although it has not been accepted as a reliable source of history by many historians because of the inclusion of many exaggerated events and achievements to the ancient Tamil kings.Manimekhalai is a Tamil epic, the sequel to the Shilapaddikaram, which has been dated by various scholars between the second and sixth centuries CE. The Shilapaddikaram, a verse epic, narrates the story of Kovalan and Kannaki, a married couple. Tolkappiyam, deals with orthography, phonology, morphology, semantics, prosody and the subject matter of literature.

9. Consider the following statements:
1. The Gandhar art of the Peshawar Valley is known for some of the finest sculptures made in dark grey schist.
2. The Kushans were the first Indian Kings to have portraits of themselves made in their shrines.
(a) Only 1 is correct
(b) Only 2 is correct
(c) Both 1 and 2 are correct
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 is correct
Ans. (c)

10. What is the correct chronological order of the following Greco-Roman authors?
1. Ktesias
2. Pliny
3. Strabo
4. Ptolemy
(a) 2, 3, 4, 1
(b) 1, 3, 2, 4
(c) 3, 4, 1, 2
(d) 4, 2, 3, 1
Ans. (b)

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